Tribute to WWII.

World War II took place between 1st September 1939 to September 2nd 1945 around Europe, Pacific Atlantic, South-East Asia, China, Middle East, Mediterranean and Northern Africa. The Commanders were (Allies) Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek, Charles de Gaulle (Axis) Adolf Hitler, Hirohito and Benito Mussolini. As for casualties WWII may have totaled over 60 million service personnel and civilians killed. Nations suffering the highest losses, military and civilian, in order are:

USSR: 42,000,000
Germany: 9,000,000
China: 4,000,000
Japan: 3,000,000

Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi Party) equipped the nation and signed strategic treaties with Italy and Japan to support his ambitions of world domination. Hitler’s attack of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, and this is how World War II started. Over the next six years, the battle would take more lives and demolish more property and land around the world than any previous war. Among the estimated 45-60 million people killed – 6 million of them were Jews murdered in Nazi concentration camps as part of Hitler’s “Final Solution” plan which is now referred to as the Holocaust. In many aspects World War II grew out of issues left unresolved by World War I which greatly weakened Europe. The political and economic instability in Germany, and remaining resentment over the harsh terms imposed by the Versailles Treaty, charged the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi) Party.

1939

March 15: Czechoslovakia surrenders after Adolf Hitler annexes the country into the Third Reich. The Czechs stood silently in a hopeless state when the Nazis entered Prague (even though they happily welcomed the Germans when they entered the Sudetenland months earlier)

August 31: Adolf Hitler signs the order for an attack on Poland. After the Germans staged a fake raid on a Gleiwitz radio station, they blame the Polish for the “unprovoked strike”

September 1: Without declaring war, Germany attacks Poland. The coordinated air-and-land attack is organized with brutal efficiency that “blitzkrieg” becomes a feared tactic.(Blitzkrieg is a term used to describe a method of offensive warfare designed to strike a swift, focused blow at an enemy using mobile, maneuverable forces, including armored tanks and air support. Such an attack ideally leads to a quick victory, limiting the loss of soldiers and artillery, as described history.com)

September 3: France and Great Britain enter the war against Germany (by honoring their treaty with Poland)

September 4: Japan, occupied in a war with China, announces its neutrality in the European War.

September 5: As the war took place in Europe, the American People heavily favored isolationism. With the nation still doubtful of Allied propaganda after it had persuaded the U.S. into the first World War, the U.S. announces its neutrality in the European War.

September 10: Canada declares war on Germany.

September 27: Warsaw, Poland, yield to German forces. Poland is divided by Germany and Russia.

October 16: In the first attack on British territory, the Germans hit the Brits at the Firth of Forth. They damage cruisers South-Hampton and Edinburgh and the destroyer Mohawk.

November 14: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations for its aggression against Finland.

December 12: The 1940 Olympic Games that were supposed to be held in Finland got cancelled.

1940

March 19: The first bombs were dropped by The British on German soil as the Royal Air Force hits the seaplane base at Hornum (Hornum is a municipality in the district of Nordfriesland, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is located on the southern headland of the island of Sylt)

April 9: Germany attacks Denmark and Norway with the first airborne attacks on Allied forces.

May 10: Germany invades Luemborg, Holland, and Belgium. The British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigns because The Houses of Parliament lost their trust in him after the debacle of Dunqurk and his failure of appeasement policies. (it’s important to read what David Lloyd said to Chamberlain on the 7th of May 1940 as well) He was forced to resign and was replaced by Churchill while Chamberlain also paid a political price for the failure of Britain in Norway in the spring of 1940. Churchill soon started conferring and having discussions with U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt for aid to the British cause.

May 12: The Germans cross the French border.

June 4: Leaving behind weapons and supplies at Dunkirk. The British evacuate over 338,000 soldiers from France. (The Battle of Dunkirk: As the Allies were losing the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defence and evacuation to Britain of British and remaining Allied forces in Europe from 26th May to 4th June in the year of 1940)

June 10: Italy joins the war as an ally of Germany.

June 11: Italy announces war against the Allies. Great Britain, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, India and South Africa declare war on Italy. General Hering, the military governor of Paris declares the French capital an open city to prevent its destruction.

June 14: The Germans march into Paris.

June 21: France accept German terms to temporarily stop fighting, creating the Vichy Government under Marshal Petain.

July 3: A British airborne invasion sinks French vessels at Oran and Mers-el-Kebir to stop them from passing into German possession.

August 13: The Battle of Britain started. The air war was planned to destroy the RAF and alleviate the German invasion opens with the Luftwaffe outnumbering its opponent in operational aircraft: 2,669-to-704.

September 7: The London Blitz begins as Germany, trying to weaken the country’s resolve, bombs the British capital.

September 19: The U.S. Congress passes the Selective Service Act. It calls for the first peacetime draft in American history. In order for men to serve, they had to be five feet tall, weigh 105 pounds, have correctable vision and at least half their teeth.

September 27: Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Tripartite Pact. It recognizes their right to create a new order in Europe and Asia. The Tripartite Pact was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27th September 1940 by Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburo Kurusu. It was a defensive military alliance that was joined by Hungary (20th November 1940), Romania (23rd Novemebr 1940) Bulgaria (1st March 1941) and Yugoslavia (25th March 1941) as well as the German client state of Slovakia (24th November 1940) Yugoslavia’s accession provoked a coup d’etat in Belgrade two after later, and Germany, Italy and Hungary reacted by attacking Yugoslavia, with Bulgarian and Romanian assistance, and subdividing the country. The resulting Italo-German client state, the Independent State of Croatia, joined the pact on 15th June 1941.

October 16: Close to 16 million American men between the ages of 21 and 36 are needed to register at one of 6,500 draft boards across the country. Nearly 50 million men would register during the war.

October 28: The Italians take over Greece.

1941

January 10: The U.S. Congress introduces the Lend-Lease program.

March 11: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease act to provide aide to Great Britain (despite opposition from isolationists)

March 21: The first all-black unit of the U.S.R Air Corps- the 99th Pursuit Squadron – is activated (which I believe is also called Tuskegee Airmen) They created the 332nd Fighter Group and 4477th Bombardment Group of the US Army Air Forces. Although the 477th Bombardment Group trained with North American B-25 Mitchell bombers, they never served in combat. The 99th Pursuit Squadron was the first black flying squadron, and the first to deploy overseas (to North Africa in April 1943, and later to Sicily and Italy) The 332nd Fighter Group, which included the 100th, 301st and 302nd Fighter Squadrons was the first black flying group. It deployed to Italy in early 1944. In June 1944, the 332nd Fighter Group began flying heavy bomber escort missions and, in July 1944, with the addition of the 99th Fighter Squadron, it had four fighter squadrons.

April 13: Japan and Russia sign a neutrality pact.

May 27: Bismarck, the German battleship is hunted down and sunk.

June 22: Germany unleashes its “Barbarossa” plan and attacks the Soviet Union without declaring war. The Germans encounter little opposition (despite massing troops at the border) Hitler is now fighting a two-front war.

June 25: While threatened of a forced march on Washington, Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8802. It fights discrimination against blacks and women in the hiring practices of defense jobs. It is the first federal notion toward civil rights since Reconstruction.

July 8: Germany and Italy announce the end of the Yugoslav nation.

July 12: With Luftwaffe invasions, Germany hits Moscow for the first time.

August 2: The U.S. extends assistance to the Soviet Union.

October 16: The Germans get to the gates of Moscow. Civilians flee the “Bolshoi Trap” in the middle of panic and looting (robbery).

October 19: Soviet Premier Josef Stalin stays in Moscow, pledging that the city will be defended until the very end.

October 31: A German U-boat torpedoes and sinks the U.S.S Reuben James (FFG-57) off the Icelandic coast. It is the first U.S. Navy vessel sunk by enemy action in World War II. The USS Reuben James is an Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile frigate, which was the third ship of the U.S. Navy named for Reuben James, a boatswain’s mate who distinguished himself fighting the Barbary pirates.

November 16: Roosevelt extends Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union.

December 7: Hundreds of Japanese warplanes, at 7:55 am on Sunday, launched from aircraft carriers far out at sea, attack the American Pacific fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, based on a plan by Isoroku Yamamoto. The following were either sunk or damaged: eight battleships (including U.S.S. Arizona) three light cruisers, three destroyers and four other naval vessels. 164 American aircraft, mostly on the ground were ruined. And 2,403 Americans were killed. The Japanese also hit Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Malaya and Hong Kong on the day that Roosevelt would call “a date which will live in infamy”. He meant that the day would be remembered as a dishonorable and disgraceful day in American history as a result of the large number of human losses because of the Pearl Harbor attacks.

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The US destroyer USS ‘Shaw’ explodes during the early morning air attack

December 8: The day U.S. declares war on Japan.

December 11: Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.

December 22: As more than 40,000 Japanese troops come ashore north of Manila, American general Douglas MacArthur orders a retreat to Bataan.

December 23: Army departs and Manila is declared an open city.

1942

January 13-14: A German U-Boat managed to sink right unarmed vessels. By the end of the month, U-Boats would sink 25 tankers along the East Coast, maintaining a struggle for predominance of the seas called the “Battle of the Atlantic” and threatening to choke off America’s allies. More than 230 Allied ships and almost 5 million tons of needed material went to the bottom of the sea in the first six months of 1942.

January 20: The “Final Solution” for Jews in Europe is established by The Wannsee Conference in Germany. The plan would try to eliminate an estimated 11 million people.

February: Philip Johnston proposes to the Marines that the Navajo Indians be used to transmit military messages through a secure code. This would soon lead to create an unbreakable code developed by the code talkers.

February 15: Lieutenant General Arthur Percival and staff on their way to Singapore Ford factory to discuss and negotiate the island’s surrender with General Yamashita.

February 19: The Executive Order 9066 is signed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This order authorized the secretary of war to designate specific areas as military zones, and then exclude those from them who it felt to be a danger. This order authorized the secretary of war to prescribe certain areas of military zones, clearing the way for the incarceration of Japanese Americans, German Americans, and Italian Americans in U.S. concentration camps. (They were forced from their homes and moved inland)

March 1: U.S. War and Navy Departments state that the commanders of the forces in Hawaii (the ones from Pearl Harbor attack) will be court-martialed for dereliction of duty. (Husband Edward Kimmel was the commander in chief of the United States Fleet and the U.S. Pacific Fleet and removed from command after the December 1941 attack and reduced from four-star to the two-star rank of rear admiral. He retired from the Navy in early 1942.)

March 11: General Douglas MacArthur, leaves the troops and departs for Australia (under orders from the President.)

March 17: General MacArthur is named supreme commander of the Allied Forces.

March 25: B-25 bombers land at McClellan Field near Sacramento. Lt. Col. James Doolittle monitors modifications to the planes (in devising for a secret mission) which depart April 1.

April 9: The Battle of Bataan took place from 7th January and end on the 9th of April. This was a battle fought by the US and the Philippine Commonwealth against Japan during World War II. The battle represented the most intense phase of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during WWII. The American surrender at Bataan to the Japanese, with 76,000 soldiers surrendering in the Philippines altogether, was the largest in American and Filipino military histories, and was the largest US surrender since the American Civil War’s Battle of Harper’s Ferry. Soon afterwards, U.S. and Filipino prisoners of war were forced into the Bataan Death March. The Bataan Death March was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000-80,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war from Saysain Point, Bagac, Bataan and Mariveles to Camp O’Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, via San Fernando, Pampanga, where the prisoners were loaded onto trains. The transfer started on the 9th of April 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during WWII. The total distance marched from Mariveles to San Fernando and from the Capas Train Station to Camp O’Donnell is reported by differing sources as between 60 and 69.6 miles. Differing sources also report widely differing prisoner of war casualties prior to reaching Camp O’Donnell: from 5,000 to 18,000 Filipino deaths and 500 to 650 American deaths during the march. The march was characterized by physical abuse and wanton killings, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime.

April 18: In the fist American raid on the Japanese mainland, 16 B-25 carrier-launched bombers led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle strike Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama, Nagoya and Yokosuka.

April 30: Notice is posted on the West Coast declaring the planned dismissal of all “Japs” from the area into assembly centers.

May: The first Naavjo code talkers are sent to San Diego for training. The 420 deployed to the Pacific would engage in every battle from Guadalcanal to Okinawa.

May 6: The Battle of Corregidor fought May 5-6 was the culmination of the Japanese campaign for the conquest of the Commonwealth of the Philippines during WWII.

May 7-8: The Battle of the Coral Sea rages. The first air-naval conflict in history block the Japanese from landing a large invasion force at Port Moresby and signals America’s move from a defensive strategy in the Pacific to a mixed defensive-offensive one. This was between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the naval and air forces from the US and Australia, taking place in the Pacific Theatre of WWII. The plan was to strengthen their defensive position in the South Pacific, the Japanese chose to invade and occupy Port Moresby (In New Guinea) and Tulagi (in the southeastern Soloman Islands) The plan to fulfill this was called Operation Mo, and involved several major units of Japan’s Combined Fleet. It was all under the command of Japanese Amdiral Shigeyoshi Inoue. The U.S. learned of the Japanese plan through signals intelligence, and sent two US Navy carrier task forces and a joint Australian-U.S. cruise force to oppose the offensive. This was also under the command of US Admiral Frank J. Fletcher.

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The American aircraft carrier USS Lexington explodes on 8 May 1942, several hours after being damaged by a Japanese carrier air attack.

June 4-7: The Battle of Midway took place. This took place in the Pacific Theatre of WWII six months after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea. This conflict was between the U.S. Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy. The U.S. Navy’s decisive victory in the air-sea battle (June 3-6, 1942) and its successful defense of the major base located at Midway Island ruined Japan’s plan of neutralizing the United States as a naval power and turned the tide of WWII in the Pacific. The Japanese were planning to smash what was left of the Pacific fleet, take Hawaii, hold its people hostage and force the US to sue for peace. However, the whole plan dilapidated when American cryptographers had deciphered their plans and the Navy was waiting for them. The Japanese would lose 3,500 men, four carriers, a cruiser and 332 aircraft. The Americans would lose 307 men, the carrier Yorktown, one destroyer and 150 aircraft.

June 22: A Japanese submarine shells the military depot at For Stevens, Oregon in the first attack on the U.S. mainland.

August 7: American land forces go on the offensive for the first time in the Pacific, landing on Guadalcanal. It would take six months to secure the island, but Japanese expansion has stopped.

August 12: The first supply aircraft land on Guadalcanal’s Henderson Field.

September-October: The 110,00 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast are interred. They are relocated from assembly centers to one of 10 more permanent camps in remote desert areas.

September-November: The Battle of Stalingrad rages. By mid-September the Germans had pushed the Soviet forces in Stalingrad back until the latter occupied only a 9-mile long strip of the city along the Volga, and that strip was only 2 or 3 miles wide. The Soviets had to supply their troops by barge and boat across the Volga from the other bank. At that point Stalingrad became the scene of some of the fiercest and most-concentrated fighting of the war; streets, blocks, and individual buildings were fought over by small units of troops and changed hands again and again. The city’s remaining buildings were pounded into rubble by the close combat.  On 30th September 1942 Adolf Hitler had announced in a public speech that the German army would never leave the city. The most critical moment came when on October 14 the Soviet defenders had their backs so close to the Volga that the few remaining supply crossings of the river came under German machine-gun fire. The turning point of the battle came with a huge Soviet counteroffensive, code-named Operation Uranus (November 19-23) which had been planned by Generals Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky, and Nikolay Nikolayevich Voronov.

It was launched in two spearheads, some 50 miles north and south of the German salient whos tip was at Stalingrad. The counteroffensive utterly surprised the Germans, who thought the Soviets incapable of mounting such an attack. The operation was a “deep penetration” maneuver, attacking not the main German force at the forefront of the battle for Stalingrad—the 250,000 remaining men of the Sixth Army and Fourth Panzer Army, both formidable foes—but instead hitting the weaker flanks. Those flanks were vulnerably exposed on the open steppes surrounding the city and were weakly defended by undermanned, undersupplied, overstretched, and undermotivated Romanian, Hungarian, and Italian troops.

The attacks quickly penetrated deep into the flanks, and by November 23 the two prongs of the attack had linked up at Kalach, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Stalingrad; the encirclement of the two German armies in Stalingrad was complete. The German high command urged Hitler to allow Paulus and his forces to break out of the encirclement and rejoin the main German forces west of the city, but Hitler would not contemplate a retreat from the Volga River and ordered Paulus to “stand and fight.” With winter setting in and food and medical supplies dwindling, Paulus’s forces grew weaker. Hitler declared that the Sixth Army would be supplied by the Luftwaffe, but the air convoys could deliver only a fraction of the necessary supplies.

November 8: Operation Torch opens as Allied forces land in North Africa. While American planners had an idea of how to beat the Germans-invade France in the spring of 1943 and drive right for Berlin, the British favored attacking German and Italian forces in North Africa. The American commanders believed it was dangerous to invade Africa but Congressional elections were coming up soon.

November 19: The Russians launched a major counter-offensive at Stalingrad. The Germans have little to oppose such a strong force so within three days the troops of the 6th Army are surrounded. Close to 300,000 German and allied soldiers are now under siege in Stalingrad. This would end with the complete obliteration of the German 6th Army.

December 31: After a year at war, more than 35,000 Americans in uniform had died.

1943

January: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt goes over his policy and changes Japanese-Americans from 4-C (enemy aliens) to 1-A (fit for combat). The 442nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the U.S. Army and is the only infantry formation in the Army Reserve. It is best known for its history as a fighting unit made of entirely second-generation American soldiers of Japanese ancestry who fought in WW2.

January 14-24: Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (During the Casablanca Conference: which took place at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of WW2. General Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, whom would be representing the Free French forces, also attended, even though they did not have very big roles and were not part of the military planning.)  declared that only an unconditional surrender will be accepted from the Axis Powers (Axis Powers here are Germany, Italy and Japan whereas Allied Powers represented Britain, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, India, the Soviet Union, China, and the U.S.)

January 31: German Field Marshal Friedrich von Paulus surrenders at Stalingrad (Stalingrad is now known as Volgograd in Russia) The war in the East has turned.

February 14: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel sends his German armoured unit (known as Panzer) against the U.S. forces in North Africa (Tunisia) The Germans pour through the Kasserine Pass. The Kasserine Pass was the site of the US first major battle defeat of the war.

March 2-3: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea is a battle for control of New Guinea. The American victory forces the Japanese to re-enforce its troops by submarine — this was a strategy used to prevent the continued loss of transports and warships.  This battle took place in the South West Pacific Area when aircraft of the U.S. Fifth Air Force and the Royal Australian Air Force attacked a Japanese convoy. A plan was initially devised to move around 6,900 troops from Rabaul directly to Lae (New Guinea)

April 17: In the Aleutian Islands a listening post intercepts a radio transmission that the Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto will be touring bases in the South Pacific. (Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was the Japanese naval officer who conceived of the surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on Dec 7, 1941)

April 18: In retaliation to the decoded message, U.S. P-38 Lightning pilots intercept the bomber carrying Yamamoto and shoot it down. Japan’s most popular military leader is killed.

May 12: The Axis Powers surrender in Tunisia. North Africa is now under Allied control.

May 21: The death of Admiral Yamamoto is announced in Tokyo with the nation responding in utter shock.

May 30: All organized Japanese resistance ends on Attu Island in the Aleutians. (The Aleutian Islands or Aleutic Islands known as the Catherine Archipelago before 1867, are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller islands – most of which belong to the U.S. state of Alaska however some belong to the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai which is a federal subject of Russia and located in the Far East region of the country)

July 2: Lt. Charles B. Hall becomes the first black aviator to shoot down an enemy aircraft. He shoots down a Focke Wulf-190 over western Sicily while flying a P-40 as a part of the 99th Fighter Squadron.

July 5: The Soviets win the Battle of Kursk. (Which is a battle between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front. It began with the launch of the German offensive Operation Citadel on the 5th of July which was aiming to pinch off the Kursk salient with attacks on the base of the salient from north to south at the same time)

July 6: The naval Battle of Kula Gulf took place in the early hours of this day. The battle involved the U.S. and Japanese ships off the eastern cost of Kolombangara in the Solomon Islands.

July 7: Walter Dornberger briefs the V-2 rocket to Hitler, who approves the project of top importance.

July 10: Operation Husky (The Allied invasion of Sicily) takes place.

July 11: Dominopol no longer exists. On this day, at the height of the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia, the village was destroyed by a death squad of Ukranian Insurgent Army aided by the Ukranian peasants, and all ethnic Poles regardless of age and gender were tortured and killed. The Soviet Union invaded this place in 1939 and during Operation Barbarossa annexed by Nazi Germany into Reichskommissariat Ukraine in 1941.

July 12-13: The Japanese win a tactical victory at the Battle of Kolombangara.

July 12: The Battle of Prokhorovka takes place. This is also known as the biggest tank battle in human history and part of the Battle of Kursk. However both sides of this battle failed to achieve their objectives (In April 1943, the German leadership started getting ready for Operation Citadel with the aim of enveloping and destroying the Soviet forces in the Kursk salient)

July 13: The Soviets continue the battle even though Hitler calls off the Kursk offensive.

July 19: The Allies bomb Rome for the first time.

July 21: The Operation Bellicose is the first bombing of a V-2 rocket facility (targeting of Friendrichshafen Wurzburg raders) This was an attack by Avro Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force on a German radar factory housed in the former Zeppelin Works at Friedrichshafen and the Italian naval base at La Spezia. This was the first shuttle bombing raid in WW2 and the second use of a Master Bomber.

July 22: U.S Forces under Patton take over Palermo, Sicily.

July 23: The USSAF orders the first 100 examples of the planned Convair B-36 six-engined intercontinental strategic bomber.

July 24: Hamburg, Germany is heavily bombed in Operation Gomorrah, which at the time is the heaviest assault in the history of aviation.

July 25: Mussolini is arrested and relieved of his offices after a meeting with Italian King Victor Emmanuel III, who picks Marshal Pietro Badoglio to create a new government.

August: August 1: Operation Tidal Wave: U.S. IX Bomber Command bombed Oil refineries in Romania (Ploiesti to be exact) And on this day Japan declares independence for the State of Burma under Ba Maw. On the 2nd, 2,2897 Romani are gassed when their camp in Auschwitz is liquidated. John F. Kennedy’s PT-109 (which is a PT boat last commanded by Lieutenant John F. Kennedy in the Pacific theater during WWII) this boat was rammed in two and sunk off the Solomun Islands. The next day, the first of two “George S. Patton slapping incidents” take place in Sicily. On the 5th of August, the Swedish government announces it will now forbid German troops and water materials to transit Swedish railways. On this day Russia recapture Orel and Belgorod. (city and administrative center of Oryol Oblast in Russia) On the 6th/7th  of August, The U.S. wins the Battle of Vella Gulf off Kolombangara in the Solomons. (On the 6th the German troops start to take control of Italy’s defences) On the 11th German and Italian forces start to leave Sicily. On the 15th The Land Battle of Vella Lavella island in the Solomons begins: US and Canadian troops take over Kiska Island in the Aleutians, unaware that the Japanese have already left. Between the 16th to 20th August, The Bialystok Ghetto uprising takes place which is an insurrection (instance of rising in revolt) in the Jewish Bialystok Ghetto against the Nazi German occupation authorities. The leaders commit suicide when they run out of ammo! U.S troops enter Messina (Sicily) on the 16th. On the 17th there is heavy loss of Allied bombers in the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission in addition to the beginning of Operation Crowssbow with Operation Hydra when the RAF bombs the Peenemunde V-2 rocket facility. On the 17th and 18th of August, Portugal (in reference to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373) allow Allies to use the Azores Islands for naval and air bases. Roosevelt and Churchill signed the Quebec Agreement during the Quebec Conference on the 19th of August. On the 23rd August Kharkov (Ukraine) is liberated from Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev. On August 29th martial law replaced the Danish government during the Occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany. On August 31, an air raid is conducted against the Italian city of Pisa by the Northwest African Air Forces.

September 1: 22,750,000 British men and women are either doing essential war work or in Civil Defence (based on information from the U.K Ministry of Labour)

September 3: Mainland Italy is taken over when the British XXII Corps lands at Reggio Calabria. This is also the time when Nazi Germany begins evacuating civilians from Berlin.

September 3: The Allies land in Southern Italy.

September 4: Soviet Union declares war on Bulgaria. Also the time when The 503rd Parachute Regiment (under American General Douglas MacArthur) lands and takes over Nadzab (went of the port city of Lae in northeastern New Guinea) Lae however falls into Australian hands and those troops take Salamaua.

September 8: The surrender of Italy to the Allies is announced by Eisenhower. This is also the time when The Germans implement Operation Achse (to disarm the Italian armed forces after Italy’s armistice with the Allies on 3rd September 1943)

September 9: The Allies land at Salerno and the date when Iran declares war on Germany.

September 10: German troops take over Rome.

September 11: British troops enter Bari (southeastern Italy)

September 12: German SS troops led by Otto Skorzeny rescue Mussolini. Mussolini is then set up by Hitler who remains loyal to his friend as the head of the puppet “Italian Social Republic” (which is a German puppet state that was made during the later part of WWII)

September 13: The Salerno beachhead is in danger, as German counterattacks increase.

September 14: German troops begin the Holocaust of Viannos (mass extermination campaign launched by Nazi forces against civilians of around 20 villages found in the areas of east Viannos and west lerapetra provinces on Greek island of Crete. The killings, with a death tool in excess of 500, took place on 14-16 September by Wehrmacht units.

September 16: British forces land on Italian-held Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, starting the Dodecanese Campaign.

September 19: German troops leave Sardinia.

September 22/23: Firestorm takes place for seven days (due to the air raid on Kassel)

September 23: German torpedo boats off North coast of Brittany caused the following: to sink the Cruiser HMS Charybdis and damage the HMS Limbourne.

September 25: The Red Army takes Dnipropetrovsk. (The Red Army is the ground warfare branch of the Soviet Union’s military from 1917 – 1946 and Dnipro is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast in Ukraine)

October 1: The Allies begin to enter Naples.

October 6: War is declared on Germany by Italy.

November 1: In Operation Goodtime, US Marines land on Boughainville (Solomon Islands)

November 2: American and Japanese ships battle during the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay (off Bougainville) but Japanese failed to land reinforcements, British Troops also reach the Garigliano River on this day.

November 3: During the “Harvest Festival” which is a two-day event in Aktion Erntefest (Poland) around 43,000 Jews were shot (in three camps found in this location)

November 5: The Italians bomb the Vatican in an attempt to get rid of the Vatican radio (but failed)

November 6: The Red Army (as mentioned earlier) liberates the city of Kiev. (This part of the anniversary of the Russian Revolution in 1917)

November 9:  Allies take over Castiglione, Italy.
General De Gaulle is now the President of the French Committee of National Liberation.

November 12: Germans overrun British forces on the Dodecanese islands (off Turkey)

November 14: Bombers hit Tarawa, in the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific.

November 15: The Allied Expeditionary Force for the invasion of Europe is created.
Heinrich Himmler (German SS leader) commands that Gypsies (and part-gypsies) are put on the same level as Jews and put in concentration camps.

November 16: Anti-German resistance in Italy increases.
The British and Italian forces surrender to the Germans as the Battle of Leros ends.
160 American bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and water factory in German-controlled Vemork, Norway

November 18: 440 Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin and killing 131. The RAF lose 9 aircraft and 53 aviators.

November 19: A mass escape/uprising is staged by prisoners from the Janowska concentration camp when they ordered to cover up the proof of a mass-murder. Most are rounded up and killed.

November 20: The Galvanic Operation takes place. The US Marines land on Tarawa and US Army assault Makin atoll (chain of islands located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati)  in the Gilbert Islands and take heavy fire from Japanese shore guns.

November 22: The Cairo Conference: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and ROC leader Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt to go over ways to win over Japan.

November 23: The Deutsche Opernhaus on Bismarckstrabe in the Berlin district of Charlottenburg is destroyed (which is the Deutsche Oper Berlin and country’s second largest opera house and If I’m not mistaken I actually watched the Nutcracker Ballet in this same Opera house when I visited Berlin in January 2020) On this day heavy damage continues to take place in Berlin from the Allies.

November 25: The naval Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland is fought between Americans and Japanese. Admiral Arleigh Burke’s destroyers distinguish themselves. On this day Rangoon is also bombed by the Americans.

November 26: The Red Army offensive in Ukraine continues to take place. The Cairo Conference ends where Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek complete the Cairo Declaration which illustrates the whole strategic plan against Japan.

November 27: Bombing raids continue in Berlin with many civilian losses.

November 28: The Tehran Conference (U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin all meet in Tehran to go over war strategy (on 30th November they create an agreement regarding the planned June 1944 invasion of Europe which they call Operation Overlord) Stalin has what he has finally been waiting for.

November 29: The second session of ANOJ (which is the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during WWII and stands for Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia) takes place in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to decide on the order of the country after war.

November 30: In Malaya, Japanese bring in the Government Notification No. 41 to support families to increase their own food crops and vegetables mentioning that families who fail to comply will be punished and those who are successful will be awarded with prizes.

December

December 2: The Germans conduct the Air Raid on Bari (Italy). One of the German bombs hits a cargo ship which was carrying mustard gas and therefore releasing the chemical and killed 83 allied soldiers (however over 1000 other soldiers died in that raid)

December 3: Broadcast of “Orchestrated Hell” takes over CBS Radio which describes the Royal Air Force nighttime bombing raid on Berlin (Edward R. Murrow delivered the broadcast)

December 4: War declared on all Axis power by Bolivia.
In Yugoslavia, leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.

December 12: Rommel is announced as head of “Fortress Europa”

December 13: The Massacre of Kalavryta in southern Greece is carried out by German soldiers.

December 16: Kalinin is retaken in a large Red Army offensive.

December 24: The Supreme Allied Commander in Europe is now US General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

December 26: Scharnhorst, German battleship is sunk off North Cape by a British force led by the Battleship HMS Duke of York.

December 28: Chinese troops in Burma have some success against the Japanese.

December 19: Control of the Andaman Islands is given to Azad Hind by the Japanese.

December 30: Japanese air forces attack on Calcutta end.

1944

January 4: The First Ukrainian Front (of Red Army) enters Poland.

January 17: The first Battle of Monte Cassino takes place when the British X Corps attacks along the Garigliano river at the western end of the German Gustav Line.

January 20: Russian troops retake Novgorod.

January 20: The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
The U.S. Army 36th Infantry Division tries to cross the Gari River but fail to do so and suffers many losses.

January 22: Operation Shingle takes place by the Allies, the landing at Anzio, Italy, which was commanded by American Major General John P. Lucas. The Allies hope to break the stalemate in south Italy, but they fail to break out of the beachhead and the line holds until late May. The USS Portent (AM-106) minesweeper (commanded by Lt. H.C. Plummer) hit a mine and sank southeast of Anzio, Italy.

January 23: The HMS Janus (British destroyer) sunk off Anzio.

January 24: The Allied forces experience a major setback on the Gari River.

January 24: The Social Impact (German-occupied Belgium) is confidentially signed (which includes plans for post-war social reform)

January 27: After 872 days the Siege of Leningrad finally ends (the military blockade which was undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against soviet city of Leningrad which is now Saint Petersburg – on the eastern front) as Soviet forces forced the Germans to withdraw. Around 2 million died mostly from diseases and starvation.

January 28: The Russian Army completes encirclement of two German Army corps at the Korsun pocket (Battle of the Korsun-Cherkasy Pocket which was a battle from 24 January to 16 February 1944). Two-thirds of the Germans break free in the breakout next month with the loss of most equipment.

January 29: The Leningrad- Moscow rail line opens again ending the siege of Leningrad.

January 30: During the Homfreyganj massacre, the Japanese kill 44 suspected spies.
The Battle of Cisterna took place
The Brazzaville Conference takes place in French Equatorial Africa, during this conference, the French Committee of National Liberation (CFLN) agrees to reforms to the French colonial empire.

January 30: Operation Flintlock takes places, as American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands. U.S troops take over Majuro, Marshall Islands.

March 7: Operation U-Go begins by the Japanese where they try to achieve in pushing the Allies back to India by damaging their bases at Imphal and Kohima, in Burmha and north east India.

March 15: Allies drop 1,250 tonnes of bombs on Cassino in Italy (start of a new offensive)

March 24: The head of the Burma based Chindits, Orde Wingate, is killed along with nine other people, when a USAAF Mitchell bomber crashes into northeast India.

March 26: For the first time, Russian troops move onto Romanian soil.

April 8: The Russians begin their final attack on German forces in Crimea.

May 9: The Crimea is cleared from German resistance and Sevastopol is retaken by Soviet Forces.

May 12: German troops surrender in the Crimea.

June 4: Rome is captured by the Allies.

June 6: D-Day Operation Overlord – the Allied invasion of German-occupied Western Europe-takes place on the beaches of Normandy, France (Operation Overlord is the codename for the Battle of Normandy) The operation begun with Normandy landings. A 1,200 plane airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault including more than 5,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on this day and more than two million Allied troops were in France by the end of this month.

June 13: The first V-1 flying bomb is launched on Britain by Germany.

June 15: U.S. troops assault on the Japanese-held island of Saipan in the Marianas.

June 19: The Japanese lose to the U.S. over a massive air battle which is called the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The Japanese lost more than 400 planes and three carriers.

June 27: The Allies liberate Cherbourg.

July 3: The USSR retake Minsk.

July 7: Japanese troops on Saipan surrender.

July 9: The Allies liberate Caen.

July 20: This is the day when German military leaders try to kill Adolf Hitler but fail miserably in the Rastenburg Assassination Plot. Hitler then kills about 200 people whom he suspects that were behind this. U.S troops assault the Japanese-held island of Guam in the Marianas.

July 23: U.S troops make an amphibious assault on the Japanese-held island of Tinian in the Marianas.

August 4: Florence is liberated by the Allies.

August 10: U.S troops finally recapture Guam.

August 15: The Allies land in the South of France, which begin Operation Anvil. This was also called Operation Dragoon which was the code name for the landing operation of the Allied invasion of Provence (South of France). This operation was planned to take place with Operation Overlord, the Allied landing of Normandy but the lack of resources led to canceling the second landing. The objective was to maintain and secure the vital ports on the French Mediterranean coast and increase pressure on German forces by opening another front. The operation resulted with the victory of the Allies with territorial changes such as German forces withdrawing from most of Southern France to the Vosges area.

August 20: The German-occupied Romania is invaded by the USSR.

August 23: Romania surrenders.

August 25: The Allies liberate Paris.

September 2: The Allies liberate Pisa.

September 4: The Allies liberate Brussels and Antwerp.

September 8: Bulgaria is invaded by the USSR. Germany launch the first V-2 flying-bomb on Britain.

September 9: Bulgaria makes peace with the USSR then declares war on Germany.

September 11: The Allies enter Germany.

September 17: The Operation-Market-Garden (allied airbone assault in Arnhem, Holland) fails to halt the war against Germany.

September 22: Boulogne is liberated by The Allies.

September 26: The USSR takes over Estonia. The Germans imprison over 6,000 Allie survivors from the Market-Garden Operation in Arnhem, Holland.

September 28: Calais is liberated by The Allies.

October 1: Soviet troops enter Yugoslavia.

October 4: The Allies enter Greece, followed by German troops withdrawing.

October 14: Athens is liberated by The Allies.

October 20: Belgrade is taken over by The Allies.

October 21: Aachen is captured by The Allies (the first city to be taken in Germany)

October 23: Soviet troops enter East Prussia.

October 26: During the Battle in Leyte Gulf, the U.S. Navy succeed in battle against the Japanese. This battle is considered to have been the biggest naval battle of WWII, and possibly also the largest naval battle in history with over 200,000 naval personnel included in the battle. (This took place between 23-26 October 1944) This battle consisted of four main separate involvements: The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, The Battle of Surigao Strait, The Battle off Cape Engano, and The Battle off Samar in addition to others. This battle however was the first to include Japanese aircraft carrying our organized kamikaze attacks and the last naval battle between battleships in history. (This battle was fought in waters near Philippine islands of Leyte, Samar and Luzon from the 23rd to 26th between American and Australian forces and IJN as part of the invasion of Leyte which had the objective to isolate Japan from the other countries it had taken over in Southeast Asia which were an important source of industrial and oil supplies)

November 4: Axis forces in Greece surrender.

November 24: U.S. B-29 bombers start the bombing campaign against mainland Japan. In addition, the Allies take over Strasbourg.

November 29: Albania is captured by The Allies.

December 16: Germany start its ‘last-ditch offensive in the Ardennes, which begins the Battle of the Bulge. (took place between 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945) This battle was also known as the Ardennes Counteroffensive and the last major offensive campaign on the Western Front during WWII. The objective was intended to stop Allied use of the Belgian port of Antwerp and to divide the Allied lines, in order for the Germans to surround and destroy four Allied armies and force the Western Allies to find a way to have a peace treaty in the Axis powers’ favor.

December 26: U.S. troops hold Bastogne (Belgium), which delayed the German offensive in the Ardennes.

1945

January 1: The Germans start a surprise offensive (Operation Nordwind) and Unternehmen Bodenplatte which is Operation Baseplate begins by the Luftwaffe against western Allied air bases in Belgium and Holland by elements of different fighter wings (Jagdgeschwadern) as the first big air offensive of war in the west.

January 4: US navy air attacks on Formosa (in Taiwan)

January 9: U.S. Army troops arrive in Luzon in the Philippines.

January 15: Hitler settled (ensconced) in the Fuhrerbunker in Berlin with Eva Braun.
General Ronald Scobie, The British commander (in Athens) accepts for a request for a ceasefire from the Greek People’s Liberation Army. This marks the end of the Dekemvriana, which results in the defeat for the Greek Left.

January 17: Soviet troops take care Warsaw.

January 24: The Battle of Poznan starts for the German-occupied city of Poznan in Poland.

January 25: The Allies win the Battle of the Bulge.

January 26: Japanese troops withdraw to the coast of China.

January 27: Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz and Birkenau concentration camps, discovering hundreds of corpses that were killed, thousands of people who barely made it out alive, and the earthly remains of around 1,000,000 men and women.

January 28: The Battel of Bulge ends. Americans suffered around 75,000 deaths and the Germans lost 80,000 to 100,000. The Americans can recover however the Germans would not be able to.

January 30: The Malta Conference starts with Winston Churchill meeting with the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Island of Malta in the Mediterranean to arrange the end of WWII in both theatres, and to go over the ramifications of the Soviets now taking over most of Eastern Europe. (President Franklin D. Roosevelt would join for one day)

February 1: Ecuador declares war on Germany and Japan.

February 4: The Yalta Conference between USSR, Britain and US takes place. Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt go over their plans for Europe after the war ends, and Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan. In the Pacific, the Allies retake Manila after three years of Japanese occupation.

February 13: Dresden, Germany is firebombed by The Allies resulting in 135,000 casualties.

February 19: U.S. Marines land on Iwo Jima (In the Pacific)

February 20: Saarbrucken is captured by The Allies.

March 3: Finland declares war on Germany.

March 7: The Allies capture the Remagen bridge over the Rhine and the city of Cologne (in Germany)

March 9: U.S. firebombing of Tokyo kills around 85,000 Japanese.

March 16: U.S. troops finally capture Iwo Jima from the Japanese, at the expense of 20,000 American casualties.

March 20: Mandalay, Burma is captured by The Allies.

March 30: Danzig is captured by Soviet troops.

April 1: Okinawa is invaded by U.S troops (the first Japanese home island to be reached). The Japanese defenders would cause around 35,000 American casualties. In Europe, the Allies encircle over 300,000 German troops in the Ruhr, and the final Allied offensive in northern Italy takes place.

April 10: Hanover, Germany is captured by The Allies.

April 11: U.S. troops get to the Buchenwald concentration camp and find that the prisoners had freed themselves from a forced evacuation. Few days later, British troops liberate the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp for women.

April 12: President Franklin D. Roosevelt passes away at the age of 63 (from a cerebral hemorrhage) afterwards Harry S. Truman becomes the president of the United States.

April 13: Vienna, Austria is captured by Soviet troops.

April 15: Arnhem (Netherlands) is captured by The Allies.

April 18: The last of the German troops trapped on the Ruhr River surrender.

April 23: Soviet troops get to Berlin.

April 25: At the Elbe River in Germany, both the U.S. and Soviet troops meet.

April 28: Italian anti-fascists capture Benito Mussolini and kill him. (He was the man who founded the National Fascist Party and Prime Minister of Italy from the fascist coup d’etat in 1922 to his deposition in 1943)

April 29: U.S. troops liberate Dachau concentration camp where they evidence of medical experiments.

April 30: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide in a Berlin bunker as Soviet troops advance through the city. Nazi Propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels is planned to become the new German Chancellor but he also commits suicide – after having his wife and six children killed. Karl Donitz takes Hitler’s place (his successor)

May 2: Soviet troops complete capturing Berlin. The other German troops in Italy surrender.

May 7: Germany surrenders at all fronts.

May 8: V-E Day is declared — Victory in Europe.

May 9: Soviet troops take over Prague and the Allies liberate the Channel Islands.

June 21: U.S. troops complete capturing Okinawa, giving a base for the last assault on Japan.

July 16: The world’s first atomic bomb is tested in New Mexico called The Trinity Test. The parts of the bomb that are to be dropped on Japan are already on the way. In Germany, the Potsdam Conference between USSR, Britain and U.S. take place.

July 26: China, Britain and the U.S. issue the Potsdam Declaration which gives an ultimatum to Japan: surrender right away, or face “prompt and utter destruction.” In Britain, Clement Atlee takes Winston Churchill’s place as Prime Minister.

August 6: A U.S. B-29 called Enola Gay drops the atomic bomb over Hiroshima (Japan) which we all know is called “Little Boy.” Around 140,000 will be killed by the end of the year.

August 8: War is declared on Japan by the USSR. Soviet troops take over Japanese-held Manchuria.

August 9: A U.S. B-29 called Bock’s Car drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki (Japan) called “Fat Man.” Around 70,000 will be killed by the end of the year.

August 14: Japan finally agrees to surrender “unconditionally”

August 15: V-J Day is declared – Victory over Japan

September 2: Japan signs the formal and official surrender agreement on board the U.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay. World War II (most devastating war in human history) is finally over.

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